Jan 03, 2022 to Dec 29, 2022
Funding Agency:
Philippine Institute for Development Studies
Focus Area(s):
Regional, Urban, and Rural Development

Metropolis is a contemporary urbanization phenomenon happening in many countries. It refers to a large urban settlement with population of over 1 million and whose geographical area extends across several local government boundaries. The growth of metropolises in the country is said to have started in the 1990s spurred by the growth of the business process outsourcing (BPO) industry, tourism and increased Overseas Filipino Workers’ (OFW) remittances. These have stimulated corresponding increases in consumer goods, growth in automotive industry, housing, and utilities. The Philippines is characterized by higher levels of metropolitan fragmentation compared to other countries in East Asia. An OECD study (2015) noted that fragmented urban areas have lower productivity. For a given population size, a metropolitan area with twice the number of municipalities is associated with around 6% lower productivity. Thus, metropolitan governance is encouraged for scale economies and cost efficiency. Philippine laws do support metropolitan arrangements. Article X Section13 of the 1986 Constitution provides the prime basis for any inter-governmental or metropolitan arrangement. This is also enshrined in the Local Government Code of 1990, whereby LGUs are encourage to group themselves, consolidate, coordinate their efforts, services and resources for purposes that is commonly beneficial to them. However, despite the early beginnings and institutionalization of some metro organizations, their functions and authority have remained limited. Metro organizations around the country are faced with financing issues, weak leadership, fragmentation and lack of technical resources among others. This study aims to investigate metropolitan arrangements by looking into existing metropolitan cooperation in the delivery of specific public services. The study will consider unique public services where cooperation among LGUs have been developed. As mentioned in early studies, there are specific public services, which have been considered by LGUs as critical for metropolitan cooperation. These are public services on: solid waste management, water supply and sanitation, emergency response for climate change, traffic management, and infrastructure planning (Manasan et al 2002).

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