Date Published:
Dec 27, 2018
Focus Area(s):
DP 2018-49 (Revised)

The enactment of Republic Act 10533, or the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, added two years to basic education. One of the rationales offered by proponents of the law is that Senior High School (SHS) graduates can work or engage in entrepreneurial activities if they choose to do so. This study assesses the likelihood of achieving the employment and entrepreneurship objectives of the program by examining the experience of grade 12 graduating students and the views of firms about the labor market prospects of the SHS graduates. It does this by (a) looking into the SHS curriculum and the competencies developed, (b) identifying the types of jobs that fit the Grade 12 graduates, (c) gathering the private sector perspective on the jobs available and appropriate for the Grade 12 graduates, and (d) providing policy recommendations for the improvement of the implementation of the SHS program. The study reveals that despite identifying employment and entrepreneurship as a rationale for the program, three-quarters of the grade 12 students plan to proceed to higher education. This proportion is true even for those in the technical-vocational-livelihood track. Among the highlights of the focus group discussion with students is the revelation that they are not very confident that they will get a job after graduating from SHS. The firm also lack in-depth knowledge of the SHS program. While it may be too early to be gauging the performance of the SHS program particularly the performance of its graduates in the labor market, the study provides recommendations to improve program implementation and boost the chances of achieving the employment and entrepreneurship objectives.


This publication has been cited 16 times

In the Media
  1. Purification, Marlon. 2022. Sen. Win vows to review K to 12 program. Journal News Online.
  2. Abellanosa, Rhoderick. 2019. Abellanosa: The promise of senior high. SunStar Cagayan de Oro.
  3. Añago, Bianca Angelica D. 2021. Employers worried about SHS graduates’ readiness for work. BusinessWorld.
  4. Conde, Mavic. 2019. Albay school head urges firms: Give senior high school graduates a chance. Rappler.
  5. Cortez, Gillian. 2019. Non-technical K-to-12 students still want college degrees for hireability. BusinessWorld.
  6. Ernie Reyes . 2023. Marcos admin kinastigo sa hiring policy ng K-12 senior high school graduates. Remate On-line.
  7. Global Daily Mirror . 2022. Gatchalian vows review to K to 12 law. Global Daily Mirror .
  8. GMA News . 2022. Gatchalian vows review of K-12 Law due to ‘congested curriculum, inadequate training’. GMA News .
  9. Gonzales, Cathrine. 2022. Gatchalian vows to push for oversight review of K-12 law. Inquirer.
  10. Magsambol, Bonz. 2019. Mandatory ROTC? Fix K to 12 program first, netizens say. Rappler.
  11. Mario Casayuran. 2023. Gatchalian slams 'unfair' gov't policy on hiring K to 12 senior HS graduates. Manila Bulletin.
  12. Pascual, Antonio Cecilio. 2019. Is there a job waiting for senior high-school graduates?. BusinessMirror.
  13. Punongbayan, JC. 2019. Why senior high school needs urgent fixing. Rappler.
  14. Senate of the Philippines . 2022. Bicam panel approves creation of EDCOM II; Gatchalian assures education reforms. Senate of the Philippines .
  15. Senate of the Philippines. 2023. Gatchalian slams government policy on hiring K to 12 senior high school graduates. Senate of the Philippines.
In Congress Documents
  1. Vargas, Alfred. 2020. House Bill 7120: An act granting tax incentives to private employers that hire k to 12 graduates, appropriating funds therefor, and for other purposes. House of Representatives.

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