Articles on economic development, business, political dynamics, public administration, foreign relations, and other related subjects, which are policy-oriented and may or may not explicitly have a bearing on the Philippines, will be considered for publication in the Philippine Journal of Development (PJD). The target readers of the PJD include researchers, educators, policymakers, and planners. 

All contributions are refereed for quality and relevance based on the Institute's publication guidelines. Time normally allowed for the review process is two months. All submitted articles must be original and unpublished. Papers that are simultaneously being considered in other journals may not be accepted. Such simultaneous consideration must be brought to the attention of the editorial staff.

Manuscripts must be typed double-space and should be accompanied by an abstract of not more than 500 words. The full text of the manuscript should not exceed 8,000 words excluding references.

Book reviews are also accepted. The theme or topic of the book should fall within the scope of the articles accepted for publication in the PJD. Book reviews must also be typed double-space and should not exceed 1,500 words. The electronic file of the manuscript must also be submitted.

Style and Usage (applies to all PIDS published works)

  1. American rather than British spelling is preferred.

  2. Mathematical equations should be avoided but where unavoidable, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of factors should be written on a single line; thus, for example:
    a + b = c; dy/dx = B; [(a - b) (c + d)]/(m + n) = r.

  3. The International System of Units (SI) measurements and weights, or the metric system, is used because of its worldwide acceptance.

  4. Acronyms are spelled out the first time they are used in the manuscript. Do not give any acronym in parentheses if it is not used subsequently in the manuscript.

  5. In terms of names of countries, the short form of the country name is acceptable. The long form or the formal name is preferable for legal texts, such as treaties, agreements, and memorandums of understanding.

  6. Periods after capital letters that are abbreviations for names of countries or organizations (e.g., USA) are omitted. These are also treated as singular nouns.

  7. Numerals used at the beginning of a sentence are spelled out.

  8. Numerals from 10 and larger are never spelled out unless they are used to begin a sentence. 

  9. Numbers smaller than 10 are spelled out unless when accompanied by a standard unit of measure.

  10. In a series containing some numbers 10 or more and some numbers lower than 10, use numerals for all.

  11. When writing numbers consisting of four or more figures, use a comma. 

  12. When writing fractions in the running text, spell them out (e.g., two thirds, one hundredth, three quarters).  

  13. Use serial comma when writing a list of three or more items. 

  14. The word "percent" is written as a single word. When used in the text, the full word should appear preceded by the number. When inside the parentheses, only the symbol is used.

  15. When writing currencies, use the ISO currency codes (e.g., USD for US dollar). The currency code is written before the numeral with a space in between (e.g., PHP 200 million, USD 400). 

  16. The recommended format for writing dates is month-day-year with leading zeroes in the year.  

  17. When writing decades, write the entire decade with an "s" after it (e.g., 1990s). 

  18. Time periods can be given as 1999–2000, from 1999 to 2000, or between 1999 and 2000. It is incorrect to use "from 1999–2000" or "between 1999–2000". 

  19. Figure and table titles are placed above the figure or table.

  20. Avoid contractions in formal writing (e.g., don't, isn't, wasn't) 

  21. PIDS follows the trend of doing away with hyphens and joining words (permanent closed compounds) or leaving them open (open compounds).

    Some rules:

    • Solid compound words are a combination of two elements, originally separate words but now spelled as one word.
      E.g., decisionmaking, typesetting, policymaker, parttime

    • Temporary compounds when used as adjectives should be joined by a hyphen.
      E.g., small-scale business, high-priced goods, length-frequency data

    • Word-forming prefixes generally form closed compounds.
      E.g., bivalent, biophysical, socioeconomic, coauthor, interrelated, macroeconomics, multidisciplinary

    For more details on compound words and hyphenation, refer to the Chicago Manual of Style.

  22. Position of quotation marks

    • Use quotation marks to set off a direct quotation.

    • Punctuation marks like period and comma always go inside the quotation marks unless the punctuation is not part of the quoted material. 

    • Colons and semicolons are always placed outside the quotation marks. 

  23. Do not finish a sentence with more than one punctuation mark. When a quotation ending in a question mark or exclamation point ends a sentence, no extra period is needed.  

  24. For directly quoted materials, provide the author's name, date of publication, and page numbers.

  25.  For internet sources without page numbers, an alternative is to indicate the paragraph where the quoted material was obtained. 

Reference citation and formatting (applies to all PIDS published works)

Bibliography is used for the PIDS Discussion Papers. This means that the author(s) should include all the sources that were used in writing the paper. For PIDS Research Paper Series, Philippine Journal of Development, and Policy Notes, References are used, hence, only sources cited in the text must be included.

How to arrange

  • Arrange references in alphabetical order according to authors' names.

  • For papers by the same author or author team, use a 3-em dash (i.e., ———) in place of the authors' names. List these in chronological order, according to year of publication.
    (Note: An em dash is longer than an en dash. To insert an em dash using automatic formatting in MS Word, click Alt + 0151.)

  • For papers by the same senior author but different coauthors, alphabetize by the second author and so on.

  • If there are two or more references by the same author(s) for the same year, distinguish them from each other by placing a, b, c, and so on after the date.

  • Use semicolon to separate different authors (e.g., Bell 1989; Turner 2001; Sawyer 2004).

  • When two or more references are cited in the text, chronology has precedence over alphabet (e.g., Santos 1978, 1979; Manese 1982, 1994; Werner 2001).

How to format

  • In the running text, use the author-date system without a comma in between.

  • In the Bibiliography or References, state in full the last name followed by a comma, then the initials of the first and second names (if there is any) and the middle name (when given). These initials must be separated by a period without a space in between. 

  • For multiple-author books, the names of the second, third, and succeeding authors must be given in the references. They are designated as "et al." only in the running text but not in the references.

  • Titles of publications should be in sentence case (i.e., only the first letter of the first word is capitalized). If there is a subtitle, usually separated by a colon, capitalize only the first letter in the subtitle. 
  • The titles of books and the names of journals are usually italicized.

  • When writing the place of publication, if a city is not well known, include the state, province, or country. 

  1. For books:

    1. Single author or editor

      Watt, K.E. 1973. Principles of environmental science. New York: McGraw Hill Co.

      Running text: (Watt 1973) or Watt (1973)

      Khandker, S., Editor. 2002. Impact of Asian financial crisis revisited. Makati City, Philippines and Washington, DC, USA: Philippine Institute for Development Studies and The World Bank Institute.

      Running text: (Khandker 2002)

    2. Two authors

      Bethelemy, J.C. and A. Varoudakis. 1996. Financial development policy and growth. Paris: OECD Development Centre.

      Running text: (Bethelemy and Varoudakis 1996)

    3. Multiple authors

      Breiman, L., J. Friedman, R. Olshen, and C. Stone. 1984 Classification and regression trees. New York: Chapman & Hall.

      Running text: (Breiman et al. 1984)

  2. For books with corporate author

    Asian Development Bank (ADB). 1991. Government policies and foreign direct investment. Manila: ADB.

    Running text: (ADB 1991)

  3. For journal articles

    Herrin, A.M. and M.P. Costello. 1998. Policy responses to future population growth in the Philippines. Journal of Philippine Development 45(1):127-146.

    Running text: (Herrin and Costello 1998)

  4. For thesis or dissertation

    Araño, R.R. 1985. A regional land-use allocation model: an interactive, multi-objective approach. PhD dissertation, University of the Philippines Los Baños.

    Running text: (Araño 1985)

  5. For discussion papers or working papers

    Orbeta, A. 1994. Towards a model for analyzing the impact of macroeconomic adjustment policies on households: a review of empirical household model in the Philippines. PIDS Discussion Paper Series 94-05. Makati City, Philippines: Philippine Institute for Development Studies.

    Running text: (Orbeta 1994)

  6. For papers presented in a conference

    Florentino, R., G. Vilavieja, W. Molano, B. Raymundo, and R.D. Lana. 1996. Contributions of major food items on caloric and protein intake of Filipinos. Paper presented at the Technical Workshop of the Micro Impact on Macro Adjustment Policies Project, April 11–12, Punta Baluarte, Calatagan, Batangas, Philippines.

    Running text: (Florentino et al. 1996)

  7. For papers printed in published proceedings

    Alderman, H. 1993. New research on poverty and malnutrition: What are the implications for policy. In Including the poor, edited by M. Lipton and J. van der Gaag. Proceedings of a symposium. Washington, DC: World Bank and the International Food Policy Research Institute.

    Running text: (Alderman 1983)

  8. For edited publications

    Paqueo V., A.C. Orbeta Jr., and G. Llanto, Editors. 2017. Unintended consequences: The folly of uncritical thinking. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Institute for Development Studies.

    Running text: (Paqueo 2017)

  9. For new or revised edition.

    Smart, N. 1976. The religious experience of mankind. 2nd ed. New York: Scribner.

    Running text: (Smart 1976)

  10. For articles from newspapers and popular magazines

    de la Cruz, J. 1978. Rules on fisheries joint ventures studied further. Manila Bulletin. December 30.

    Running text: (de la Cruz 1978)

  11. For anonymous works, the use of Anonymous or Anon. is to be avoided. If the work has no name, begin the citation with its title.

    However, Anonynous or Anon. can be used accordingly if a work is explicitly attributed to "Anonymous". Such can then be used in place of the author.

  12. For laws, legislations, and other legal documents

    Republic Act 8178. 1996. An act replacing quantitative import restrictions on agricultural products, except rice, with tariffs, creating the Agricultural Competitiveness Enhancement Fund, and for other pruposes. Manila, Philippines: Congress of the Philippines. 

    Running text: (RA 8178)
  13. For references taken from electronic sources (databases, online journals, web sites, newsgroup, web or email-based discussion groups, and web or email-based newsletters)

    Author, A. 2000. Title of work. http:sourcepath (access date).

    Wagstaff, A. 2008. Measuring financial protection in health. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper. external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/03/12/000158349 _20080312140044/Rendered/PDF/wps4554.pdf (accessed on February 3, 2011).

    Reyes, E. 2014. 6.1M senior citizens to get automatic PhilHealth coverage after Pnoy signs law. http://www.interaksyon .com/article/98966/6-1m-senior-citizens-to-get-automatic-philhealth -coverage-after-pnoy-signs-law (accessed on January 4, 2015).

    Note: Ideally, the access date should contain the month, day, and year.

    There is no need to put the DOI (digital object identifier).

  14. If the date of publication is unknown, "n.d." may be used.

    Alburo, A. n.d. The Philippine automation of import procedures for perishable goods. Powerpoint presentation, Center for the Advancement of Trade Integration and Facilitation, School of Economics, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines.

  15. If an article has been accepted for publication by a journal but has not yet appeared, "forthcoming" may be used in place of the year and page numbers.

    Tabuga, A. Decisiveness of international migration intentions: The role of perception, wealth and migrant networks. Philippine Journal of Development. Forthcoming.

    Running text: (Tabuga forthcoming)

  16. Unpublished interviews are best placed and cited in the running text or in the footnotes. The citation should include the names of the person interviewed and the interviewer, the place and date of the interview (if both are known), and, if a transcript or recording is available, where it may be found.

    Antonio de Jesus (executive director, PHARMA Inc., Pasig City, Philippines), in discussion with the author, September 12, 2019, Quezon City, Philippines


The preferred method of sending contributions is via email. Please submit the full article to for a "first look". This initial screening is done so that only articles that have good chances of gaining favorable referees' report are actually put into the refereeing process. If the initial assessment is positive, it will undergo a double-blind review process that normally takes two months.

Five complimentary copies of the Journal and 24 offprint copies of the article are given to each author whose article is included in the PJD issue. Where there is more than one author, copies will be divided equally among them. For additional copies, the author(s) may place orders at discounted rates with the editorial staff.

For email submissions or inquiries, send them to

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