The primary objective for conducting the assessment of the social sector is to provide the basis for setting the thematic priorities for the Philippines, taking into account the development requirements in the next five years. The assessment covers four administrations, Aquino (1986-1992), Ramos (1992-1998), Estrada (1998-2001), and Macapagal-Arroyo (2001-2004). It draws upon secondary data and earlier assessments done. The social developments in the Philippines are viewed from the overall context of poverty as the major development problem of the country. The concept of poverty as being multidimensional is adopted in this study. Consequently, various indicators relating to the different dimensions of poverty are used to gauge the performance of the country. The country's performance with regards to reducing the different dimensions of poverty has been generally modest and mixed. This paper also proposes an action plan for the social sector that identifies key strategic interventions for the next five years.