Date Published:
Jun 01, 2018
Discussion Papers
Focus Area(s):
DP 2018-20

This paper defines the middle-income class as those whose per capita incomes are within two- and twelve- times the (official) poverty line. Descriptive analyses show that middle-income households 1) are largely found in urban areas, 2) have members (working age) employed in stable jobs, and 3) place high value on investing in human capital. The determinants of middle-income status are identified using a multinomial logistic model. Results of the empirical estimation are generally consistent with the findings of the descriptive analyses. The paper also provides policy discussions on unintended consequences arising from the growth of the middle income and on the need for policy action to address the concerns. The study also performs a simulation exercise to assess whether the long-term goal of a predominantly “middle class” society can be achieved using the thresholds for defining the middle-income class.


This publication has been cited 45 times

In other Publications
  1. Lozano, Lorafe and Evelyn Taboada. 2021. Applying user-perceived value to determine motivators of electricity use in a solar photovoltaic implementation in a Philippine Island. Sustainability, 13, No. 14, 1-19 . MDPI.
  2. Lozano, Lorafe, Edward M. Querikiol, and Evelyn B. Taboada. 2021. The viability of providing 24-hour electricity access to off-grid island communities in the Philippines. Energies, 14, No. 20, 1-18 . MDPI.
  3. Never, Babette, et. al. 2020. Carbon consumption patterns of emerging middle classes. Discussion Papers 13/2020. German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE).
In the Media
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  16. Lopez, Virgil. 2020. Duterte approves wage subsidy for middle class workers. GMA News.
  17. Lopez, Virgil. 2020. Gov’t working on P45-B wage subsidy program for private sector employees. GMA News.
  18. Macaraeg, Pauline. 2020. Should the middle class receive subsidy?. Rappler.
  19. Magsino, Dona. 2020. Villar says middle class should not receive cash assistance amid COVID-19 crisis. GMA News.
  20. Mangahas, Mahar. 2022. Counting the social classes. Inquirer.
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  23. Ofreneo, Rene. 2020. A thing called society: Social protection for all. BusinessMirror.
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  26. Panti, Llanesca. 2020. Distribution of BARMM amelioration aid still pending –DSWD . GMA News.
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In Congress Documents
  1. Cuaresma, Luisa Lloren. 2020. House Bill 7876: An act establishing an electronics donation and recycling program to povide additional resources for public school students, address the demands of the modern society and to promote effective electronic waste management. House of Representatives.
  2. Salceda, Joey Sarte. 2020. House Bill 80: An act providing for compensation to stay-at-home housewives. House of Representatives.
  3. Salceda, Joey Sarte. 2019. House Bill 8875: An act providing for compensation to stay-at-home housewives. House of Representatives.

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