Date Published:
Jun 01, 2018
Category:
Discussion Papers
Focus Area(s):
Code:
DP 2018-20

This paper defines the middle-income class as those whose per capita incomes are within two- and twelve- times the (official) poverty line. Descriptive analyses show that middle-income households 1) are largely found in urban areas, 2) have members (working age) employed in stable jobs, and 3) place high value on investing in human capital. The determinants of middle-income status are identified using a multinomial logistic model. Results of the empirical estimation are generally consistent with the findings of the descriptive analyses. The paper also provides policy discussions on unintended consequences arising from the growth of the middle income and on the need for policy action to address the concerns. The study also performs a simulation exercise to assess whether the long-term goal of a predominantly “middle class” society can be achieved using the thresholds for defining the middle-income class.

Citations

This publication has been cited 45 times

In other Publications
  1. Lozano, Lorafe and Evelyn Taboada. 2021. Applying user-perceived value to determine motivators of electricity use in a solar photovoltaic implementation in a Philippine Island. Sustainability, 13, No. 14, 1-19 . MDPI.
  2. Lozano, Lorafe, Edward M. Querikiol, and Evelyn B. Taboada. 2021. The viability of providing 24-hour electricity access to off-grid island communities in the Philippines. Energies, 14, No. 20, 1-18 . MDPI.
  3. Never, Babette, et. al. 2020. Carbon consumption patterns of emerging middle classes. Discussion Papers 13/2020. German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE).
In the Media
  1. Aguila, Nick. 2020. Cynthia villar is right: Cash aid should only be for the poorest of the poor. Esquire Magazine.
  2. Barcelo, Vito, and Maricel V. Cruz. 2020. Government help for small biz firms, workers okayed. Manila Standard Today.
  3. Bisenio, Xandra Liza. 2020. The pre-COVID-19 plight of the poor and government’s old ways. Ibon Foundation.
  4. Business Mirror . 2020. FASSSTER than Covid-19: The science used to forecast pandemic in PHL. Business Mirror.
  5. Cai Ordinario. 2020. Safety nets cushion pandemic fallout for poor Filipinos. Business Mirror.
  6. Dr. Bernardo M. Villegas . 2021. The market for economic housing. Manila Bulletin.
  7. Dr. Bernardo M. Villegas . 2020. Avoiding the evil of consumerism. Manila Bulletin.
  8. Dr. Bernardo M. Villegas . 2020. Real estate scenarios during pandemic. Manila Bulletin.
  9. Esguerra, Christian. 2020. Should middle class seethe over gov’t aid for poor during COVID-19 crisis?. ABS-CBN.
  10. Forbes, Kathleen Jean. 2020. SAP, dapat palawigin at maisama ang mga “newly poor” . Radyo Pilipinas.
  11. Gabbie Santos . 2021. Rising Filipino middle class: Allies for national democracy?. London School of Economics.
  12. Garcia, Ma. Angelica. 2020. Philippines details P51-B COVID-19 aid for middle class. GMA News.
  13. iMoney. 2022. Who are the middle class in the Philippines?. iMoney.
  14. Jezreel Ines . 2021. More Filipino taxpayers see income dip in 2021 – Taxumo. Rappler.
  15. Julia Mari Ornedo . 2020. Duterte: Class ABC can buy COVID-19 vaccines for themselves. GMA News.
  16. Lopez, Virgil. 2020. Duterte approves wage subsidy for middle class workers. GMA News.
  17. Lopez, Virgil. 2020. Gov’t working on P45-B wage subsidy program for private sector employees. GMA News.
  18. Macaraeg, Pauline. 2020. Should the middle class receive subsidy?. Rappler.
  19. Magsino, Dona. 2020. Villar says middle class should not receive cash assistance amid COVID-19 crisis. GMA News.
  20. Mangahas, Mahar. 2022. Counting the social classes. Inquirer.
  21. Manila Times. 2020. PhilCare study: Low-income Filipinos are most worried during the community quarantine. Manila Times.
  22. May Dedicatoria . 2020. Housing the homeless. Philippine Star.
  23. Ofreneo, Rene. 2020. A thing called society: Social protection for all. BusinessMirror.
  24. Ordinario, Cai. 2020. ‘GDP growth may shrink further, by 4.4% from Covid-19 impact’. BusinessMirror.
  25. Panti, Llanesca. 2020. Bohol gov Yap: DSWD aid distribution problematic due to lack of updated data from LGUs. GMA News.
  26. Panti, Llanesca. 2020. Distribution of BARMM amelioration aid still pending –DSWD . GMA News.
  27. Paolo Chua . 2020. Here's What Makes You Poor, Middle Class, or Rich in the Philippines. Esquire.
  28. Papa. Antonio. 2020. Public schools teachers must be valued in PH society. Manila Times.
  29. Philippine Star. 2020. Aid for middle class workers. Philippine Star.
  30. Ramos, Christia Marie. 2020. PIDS study clearly defines who are real middle-class citizens in PH. Inquirer.
  31. Rudy Romero . 2020. Real estate sector bucked pandemic downturn. Manila Standard.
  32. Sebastian, Ma. Luisa. 2020. Middle class ayuda. Page One.
  33. Testa, Dino Mari. 2020. 2020 Philippine Income Classes: Who are the real middle class?. eCompare.
  34. Tomacruz, Sofia. 2020. Gov't studying aid for middle-class families during coronavirus outbreak. Rappler.
  35. Venzon, Cliff. 2020. Duterte's cash aid for poor Filipinos draws middle class pushback. NIkkei Asian Review.
  36. Villanueva, Angelica. 2020. No class act. Manila Standard Today.
  37. Villegas, Bernardo. 2020. What lies ahead after COVID-19. Manila Bulletin.
  38. Zialcita, Sandra. 2020. EXPLAINER: Who are the Filipino middle class?. CNN Philippines.
  39. Zoleta, Venus. 2020. Understanding social class in the Philippines: Which class do you belong to?. Yahoo News.
In Congress Documents
  1. Cuaresma, Luisa Lloren. 2020. House Bill 7876: An act establishing an electronics donation and recycling program to povide additional resources for public school students, address the demands of the modern society and to promote effective electronic waste management. House of Representatives.
  2. Salceda, Joey Sarte. 2020. House Bill 80: An act providing for compensation to stay-at-home housewives. House of Representatives.
  3. Salceda, Joey Sarte. 2019. House Bill 8875: An act providing for compensation to stay-at-home housewives. House of Representatives.


Main Menu

Secondary Menu