Date Published:
Jan 14, 2019
Policy Notes
Focus Area(s):
PN 2018-20

This Policy Note examines the extent of gender disparities in various education performance metrics, particularly the rate of out-of-school children (OOSC). It reveals that 2 in every 3 OOSC in the Philippines aged 5-15 years in 2017 were boys. Moreover, boys had lower likelihood of attending school compared to girls regardless of age range, except among kindergarten-age children. This study also finds that the lack of interest was their most commonly cited reason for leaving school, followed by high cost of education. Despite evidence about the difference in opportunity costs for schooling for boys and girls, especially at older ages, it discovers that no change was made to the current grants given under the conditional cash transfer (CCT) program. As such, it recommends that the Department of Education (DepED) work with the Department of Social Welfare and Development to study the possibility of increasing CCT allowances for boys, especially at a later age. It also urges DepED to diversify the teacher workforce to achieve balance between women and men teachers, which can also have long-term impacts on boys.


This publication has been cited 9 times

In the Media
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  2. Cabuenas, Jon Viktor. 2020. Who is middle class? Here's the classification from Philippine gov't think tank. GMA News.
  3. Cabuenas, Jon Viktor. 2020. Cash assistance for middle class unlikely —Dominguez. GMA News.
  4. Gonzales, Anna Leah. 2019. Boys still left behind in basic education — PIDS. Manila Times.
  5. Hernando-Malipot, Merlina. 2019. DepEd urged to address anomaly why more boys are being left behind in basic education. Manila Bulletin.
  6. Ordinario, Cai. 2019. World Bank expert: Males still outnumber females in taking up STEM courses. BusinessMirror.
  7. Panay News. 2019. School dropouts. Panay News.
  8. Pelayo, Marje. 2020. Alamin: Kabilang ka ba sa tinatawag na middle-class?. UNTV News and Rescue.
  9. Quijano, Nick Jr. 2020. What about the middle class?. The Daily Tribune.

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